Biosynthesis of cannabinoids in yeast

8 months ago

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Yeast may be used in other areas of industry rather than only for production of food and alcohol; soon we might use it to “get high” or create medicine based on THC, CBD and other cannabinoids that are hard to extract from plant as they are found in small quantities. Key to this lies in a small fungus better known as “brewer’s yeast” or Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Prohibition on Marijuana and THC limited number of scientific researches on this subject, availability of these substances is small as they are found in traces when it comes to natural production in plants; massive production of Cannabis plants requires the use of pesticides and fertilizers additionally damaging the environment. This is why these new findings of GM (genetically modified) yeast might help in therapeutic, medicinal and environmental friendly research, also cannabinoids may be produced in bigger batches that might cause number of researches to rise. Yeast feeds only on sugar so this type of production is cheap as well.

Jay Keasling, a UC Berkeley professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and of bioengineering and a faculty scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory said:

"For the consumer, the benefits are high-quality, low-cost CBD and THC: you get exactly what you want from yeast… It is a safer, more environmentally friendly way to produce cannabinoids."

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What is the connection between cannabis and yeast?
With the development of Genetic engineering (GE) and Genetic modification (GM) scientists have been able to modify yeast and it genes; where new type of GE yeast now contains same genes as ones found in cannabis. These types of researches are not new. Previous studies have been conducted and published on this subject. Engineering yeasts as platform organisms for cannabinoid biosynthesis. and Production of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid from cannabigerolic acid…are some of them, but this is the first study that has complete biosynthesis explained; findings were published in Nature by Keasling, the Philomathia Foundation Chair in Alternative Energy at Berkeley with his colleagues on 27th of February.

Cite from the research

Here we report the complete biosynthesis of the major cannabinoids cannabigerolic acid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, cannabidiolic acid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid and cannabidivarinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, from the simple sugar galactose.

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How does it work?
Key is to trick its metabolism so that they for example, instead of turning sugar into alcohol, they convert sugar into other chemicals that are latter introduced to enzymes which turn them into other products like THCA which is then secreted as a liquid in surrounding. They ended up putting in more than ten types of genes into yeast; most of which were copies of genes used by the Cannabis plant to synthesize cannabinoids.
Issue found in the studies before and this one was that the enzyme that is crucial in making CBGA(Cannabigerolic acid) in marijuana plant did not work in yeast. Instead of finding a synthetic solution, Berkeley postdoc Leo d’Espaux and graduate student Jeff Wong have isolated prenyl transferase, enzyme found in Cannabis plant and putted it into yeast. (This step was the missing link, up until today) Easy part was to introduce enzyme that is going to transform CBGA into THCA and a different one to create CBDA. They also added enzymes to produce CBDV (cannabidivarin) and THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin), cannabinoids that are not that well documented whose effects are not that studied.

Interestingly, there are more benefits in this kind of production as yeast produces its own cannabinoids that are not found naturally in the plant, J. Keasling adds:

“The possibility of new therapies based on novel cannabinoids: the rare ones that are nearly impossible to get from the plant, or the unnatural ones, which are impossible to get from the plant.”

This type of yeast transforms fatty acids into cannabinoids, something that does not naturally occur. It is basis for the production of unnatural and natural cannabinoids, it will cause more studies of these compounds to be done and expand the development of treating different human problems while keeping the environment less polluted on contrary to regular farming. This means that cannabinoid might join the list with other chemicals that are produced using yeast, human growth hormone and insulin are just some of them.

References:

#health #cryptosmokers #curationbro #canna-curate

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Read more from “Scrutiny Of Knowledge Series:

➺Introduction➺Medicinal Cannabis in Cancer patients-➺Antiquity of Entheogens and reasoning on superstitions regarding them

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yeast is definitely an easy and the cheapest way to produce pure cannabinoids that today are costly to extract from the buds, this post is an eye opener, made me do too many researches. yeast factories are the next big thing worth investing in.

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But, up until now we had a problem...this might give a nice swing.

the question is: Can you smoke that shit?

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Oh men, just imagine the possibilities...
You can infuse it in anything you would like to smoke. You can even infuse it in the weed. you can pour it inside other things you can smoke that are less harmful. You could drop it in a pipe, in a bong, in a vaporizer, vulcano ..

Not the mentioned what @unnamed mentioned, other ways of interesting it.

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Getting high using a volcano is something I'd like to try haha

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Yeah, we didn't have that shit in Croatia .. Don't know now...

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It's an European made vape, easy enough to import 👌

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I ment when I lived there...

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we can already get the same weed Terpenes from flowers, that would give it some taste to the sandwich..... LOL....Gorilla Glue and ham sandwich

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Haha... This is some next level cousine

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I don't think it'd be as diverse a cannibinoid/terpine profile as bud provides

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You make drinks from it. Or sandwich spread.

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You could probably dab/vape it if it's concentrated

This sounds like a very interesting prospect for future treatment of diseases and psychological traumas. Especially for countries that prohibit even medical cannabis. If they are capable of modifying yeast to produce thc and cbd it would be a huge breakthrough for people that suffer from all kinds of ailments.

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Thc and cbd are mostly on a schedule list for drugs, not Cannabis as a plant. This is why it is legal to grow it if it doesn't have cannabinoids, for industry.

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Ah yes. You are right. My bad. I thought only THC was scheduled because of its psychoactive effects?

I actually saw a few months ago they did the same thing with yeast, but made morphine.

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Yes, but it is not available on the market as a product so I did not want to include it in post with hormones and insulin.

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Some interesting stuff! Imagine the good they can do.

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yeah, insulin production from yeast has benefited environment and animals as well as we now do not rely on production of insulin from animals.