This is an Overview of different ongoing researches
It's not something new and the use of Medicinal preparations of cannabis can be traced back over five thousand years which is making it one of the oldest medicinal plants (Elsohy 2002). There are more than 500 natural compounds that have been identified and isolated from Cannabis sativa: cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids and others non-cannabinoid constituents.
the primary aromatic compounds found in the essential oil of cannabis are the terpenes and they are found in highest concentration in the resin produced by the flowers of female cannabis plants. they may interact with Cannabinoids to create the unique effects of individual varieties which could be responsible make you feel sleepy or stimulate and encourage creativity after consumption (Russo 2011).
THC delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD cannabidiol have been more investigated in pharmacology.
- THC is responsible of the pharmacological and psychoactive effects. The THC interacts with cannabinoid receptors to induce analgesia, antispasmodic activity, reduction of chemotherapy induced nausea, vomiting, appetite stimulation. Some varieties of cannabis with high concentrations of THC can cause anxiety, disorientation, and intoxication in some patients (Howlett et al. 2002;Health Canada 2018).
- CBD is used as a treatment for anxiety disorders with low affinity for cannabinoid receptors and has anti-inflammatory effect, antipsychotic, antiseizure (Thomas et al. 2007; HealthCanada 2018).
- It's important and essentials to coose the right method of administration.
ways When effect could begin How long effects could last
Smocking/Vaporizing Seconds to minutes Up to 6 hours
Swallowing 30 min – 1.5 hours Up to 12 hours
Unders the tongue 5- 30 min Up to 12 hours
Some effects could last as long as 25 hours
With the Gastrointestinal, many patients report that medical cannabis alleviates their symptoms, it remains unclear whether cannabis and its extracts are effective for treating GI conditions. Despite a lack of high-quality evidence due to regulations, some research indicates that medical cannabis may improve GI conditions such as severe nausea. With the Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), many patients that have persistent clinical symptoms reported that cannabis have significant impact on their quality of life. Surveys of cannabis use in IBD patients in the USA and Canada have found that approximatively 15% to 20% of patients currently use cannabis, and up to 40% have tried cannabis to relieve IBD symptoms. Recently cannabis oil has been shown to significantly improve the symptoms of Crohn’s disease, researchers from Israel have shown that cannabis can produce clinical remission in up to 65% of individuals after 8 weeks of treatment, but that this improvement does not appear to result from a dampening down of the underlying inflammatory process (Naftali, et al. 2018). Naftali and colleagues at the 2018 Digestive Disease Week presented an unpublished data where they were evaluated the effects of smoking 2 cannabis (THCrich) cigarettes daily or placebo in patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. In this study, medical cannabis use was associated with improved clinical disease activity scores and endoscopic improvement. However, there was no significant change.
These studies have shown that many patients report cannabis improves symptoms such as pain, appetite, and diarrhea. In these studies, patients have used cannabis by both oral and inhalation routes (Kinnucan, 2018;).